Pahari food – Cuisine of the Gharwal Himalayas. This started out as a post for egullet, then as things began to take shape I saw the potential of an article in it (still got to find a magazine to take it!) but as I ask more and find out more, I think I am heading for a book on the subject! Before I get into the crux of the matter, here is a bit on the location of Uttaranchal. Uttaranchal lies in the Himalayas - (Sanskrit for “abode of snow”). The Himalayan Mountain range forms the earth's highest mountain region, containing 9 of the 10 highest peaks in the world. Among these peaks are the world’s highest mountains, Mount Everest on the Nepal-Tibet border; seconded by, K2 or Mount Godwin Austen. Rising sharply from the Gangetic Plain and averaging 320 to 400 km (200 to 250 mi) in width the Himalayas stretch from the bend of the Indus River in the northwest they in a broad continuous arc for nearly 2600 km (1600 mi) along the northern fringes of the Indian subcontinent, to the Brahmaputra River in the east. The Himalayan range, averages 320 to 400 km (200 to 250 mi) in width. Uttaranchal lies in the Northern part of India amidst the magnificent Himalayas and dense forests. The state is bordered by Himanchal Pradesh in the Northwest and Uttar Pradesh in the South and has international borders with Nepal and China. Uttaranchal, the 27th state of the Republic of India (total states being 28) was carved out of the former Uttar Pradesh and formed on 9th Nov 2000 after a long struggle of the Uttaranchali people. The State is divided into three distinct geographical regions, the High mountain region, the Mid-mountain region and the Terai region. These are further divided into 13 districts. Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Tehri Garhwal, Bageshwar, Chamoli, Haridwar, Champawat, Nainital, Dehradun, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarkashi, Pithoragarh, Rudraprayag. Dehradun is the capital city. Dehradun is situated at the Himalayan foothills in the fertile Doon Valley. The valley is well known for its salubrious climate and natural beauty. It is also an important educational center of the country. Some of the best public schools and convents are housed here (Welhams, Doon and The Indian Military Academy). Dehradun boasts the Oil and Natural Gas Commission and many more offices of Central and State Govt. including the Forrest Research Institute, which is a beautiful area (if you are visiting and can mange to wangle a room through a contact the FRI guest house is a great place to stay. It also boasts the Oil and Natural Gas Commission and many more offices of Central and State Govt. Dehradun is linked with rail, road and air routes to all the parts of the country. Dehra Dun caters to most taste buds. There is a plethora of restaurants including a “Dominoes” on offer. I confess though that I have yet to go through the gamut of them since eating out is not a norm. We end up going there for such short intervals that we prefer to have all the home cooked Pahari food we can manage rather than eat out. The restaurants: As I said there is a lot on offer. Nanking and Countdown are good for the occasional Chinese meal. Nanking is more presentable in terms of Ambiance and food and also offers some Thai food. (Never tried it). Countdown is famous for its large bowls of soup smothered in crispy noodles. (I love soup so we end up there for that a lot in the winters.) The President Hotel has an in-house restaurant that is very popular but I have not tried it. The Great Value hotels in-house restaurant is fairly good with some good kebabs and decent Hot and sour soup. (I measure Chinese restaurants in India by the standard of their Hot and sour soup). The Street Food: No matter how short my trip, and whatever the risks of falling ill; I make a pilgrimage to have theli soup and momos every time I go to Dehra Dun. I got married in October, early winter in Dehra Dun and on my fourth day there my husband took me to try out some theli soup. It was love at first sip! Soup vendors set up carts in little nooks and crannies all over the city and dish out steaming hot soup, cowmen, and Momos. There is nothing to beat the theli soup in on a cold foggy night in Dehra Dun. I am particularly fond one of the that is run by a Sardar in the lane adjacent to Astley Hall, It is tomato soup generously garnished with cream, chicken bits and some sort of signature masalla. Momos are steamed mincemeat wrapped parcels rather like steamed wontons and native to Tibet and Nepal. They are served with a watery soup and spicy chutney. I first tried them at the royal palace of Nepal in my school going days and have loved them ever since. I do not know to date if one can get them in Bombay (VIKRAM – can we??) but I know they are available in Delhi and definitely in Dehra Dun. Most of the soup vendors offer chowmein and momos and a variety of other quickly prepared Chinese dishes but the places I frequent for momos (no question about what meat goes into them) are one on the outskirts of Dehra Dun past the Osho restaurant complex and the other is on the main Rajpur Road opposite the large petrol pump. Both are located in less than savory places so I have never actually been to them, just sat in the car while my grumbling husband (not a fan of street food) or some other chivalrous male relative gets me some. The Bakeries: My husband’s family lived above the Grand bakery in the main market of Dehra Dun, Paltan Bazaar and they are all still partial to the cream rolls made by them. Happy legacies of the Raj are the bakeries of Dehra Dun and Mussourie. Long before I heard of Dehradun and met my husband fame of the Stick jaws from Elloras' had reached me via the boarding school legends. (Welhams is a famous girls boarding school in Dehradun and I was a student of Mayo Girls College in Ajmer). Aside from Elloras’ and Grand there are several other bakeries. The Sweetshops: Another landmark of Dehradun is their sweetshops. Kumar’s is the better-known one and is smack dab in the middle of Ghanta Ghar Chowk. My family however swears by Bengalis a little up the road from Ghanta Ghar on Main Rajpur Road. They are famous for their Ras Malais. (Little flat dumplings of cottage cheese in a reduced milk sweet sauce. They also have “chocolate” and sometimes stock Singhori, which are two famous Pahari sweet preparations. Chocolate is milk reduced to its solid form, set and then cut into chunks. I do not know if they actually add chocolate to it but I intend to find out. Singhori is a sweetmeat made and filled into a leaf. The result is little cones of the sweet fragrant with the leaf. I think the leaf is called a Malla ke Patta. (I will elaborate on this on my next trip to Dehra Dun). Okay now that I have covered everything else, here is the low down on home cooked Pahari food. There are no restaurants that I know of where one can have any of these foods, though there is a growing awareness of Uttaranchal and the tourism department is promoting all things Pahari including it’s cuisine. Several Melas and Craft Festivals have had Gharwali food stalls but I have not sampled any of them. Pahari cuisine is one of the simplest I have either sampled or cooked. The ingredients of most of the dishes can be counted on both hands. I have an unconfirmed theory that Pahari people were very hard working people and food out of necessity had to be simple, flavorful, filling and easily prepared. Pahari food is divided into two branches, Gharwali from the Gharwal area of Uttaranchal and Kumaoni from the Kumaon area of Uttaranchal. This is only the surface of the untapped knowledge on Pahari food. There are a lot of master chefs in my husband’s family starting with his mother that I need to speak to before I will have covered everything about Pahari food and I am looking forward to every step of this discovery. I hope that all of you will enjoy it as much. Some general notes. There is a predominance of Urad Daal (Black Gram) in Pahari cuisine with many variations on it, as you will find out in pages to come. In fact a story my father – in – law if fond of telling is that the ghanta ghar or bell tower of the Tehri region used a paste of Urad Daal instead of cement and has stood unmoving to date. There are a lot of influences of North Indian food as in Parathas, Pikles some sweet dishes have all been adopted from north Indian cuisine. Festive food for example - the most important among them are Roat and Arsa, Urad pakori but pooris, kaddu ki Subzi (pumpkin tempered and cooked down to a mush. A particularly good version of this I had was with a tempering of whole red chillies and methi seeds. The flavour of the chillies had spread into the dish but the spice was withheld due to the chilies being whole) and alu ka saag are the most common dishes made during these occasions and the festive seasons Ingredients The recipes that follow are all complete though several might have variations, where I know of them I have listed them. Almost everything is cooked in Mustard oil and sometimes in ghee. Tomatoes not being native to India they were not easily available in this region and came at premium prices so yogurt and Amchur (dried powdered green mango) were generally used to add the sour flavor to dishes. Tomatoes are now widely available in the main cities though I am guessing that they would still be pretty seasonal in the higher altitudes if found at all. I have included recipes of which I think ingredients will be easily available and descriptions of others that use local ingredients. However I can anyone who requires recipes of something they find particularly interesting please let me know and I will pm it to you. Garhwali Recipes Alu tamatar ka jhol Ingredients Potatoes - 250 grams Onion - 50 grams Tomatoes - 100 grams Ginger - 2 cm piece (finely chopped) Garlic - 4 to 5 cloves Red chili powder - 1 tsp Turmeric powder - ½ tsp Garam masala powder - ½ tsp Fenugreek seeds - ½ tsp Cumin seeds - 1 tsp Coriander leaves - 1 tbsp (chopped) Ghee - ¼ teacup Method 1. Put the frying pan on a moderate flame. Pour the ghee and allow it to get hot. Add cumin and fenugreek seeds in the hot oil. When the seeds start crackling add garlic cloves and chopped ginger. 2. Stir-fry till the garlic and ginger turns slightly brownish. Now add chopped onion. Fry until onion becomes tender. Add red chili and turmeric powders, chopped tomatoes, and fry for a couple of minutes, till tomatoes become soft. 3. Add one teacup of water; add pealed and big pieces of potatoes and garam masalla and cook for about 10 minutes in moderate flame. 4.Add 2-tea cup or more water and salt to taste and cook on slow fire for another 10 minutes until potatoes get tender. Remove from fire and sprinkle chopped coriander leaves. Serve hot. +++++ Baadi - A practice that is still prevalent in India is that of the ladies of the house serving the men first and only eating after they are done. My mother – in – law tells of days when she made 200 rotis for every meal. Sometimes there was no prepared dough left if the male members ate with too much gusto. The lore is that Baadi was a dish quickly prepared by the ladies of the house at such times. Baadi is a rather unappetizing sounding dish that is made as a substitute to Rotis or bread made from Kwada ka Aata (also known as Choon or Mandua flour and is black in color). The recipe for Baadi call for the flour to be roasted with ghee for a bit after which water is added and this whole is cooked for a while till it is semi solid. This is then rolled into balls and swallowed whole. Baadi is best eaten with Gahat ki daal or Phaanu. Hot Baadi and hot Phanu is now very popular food in Uttaranchal. +++++ Black and White Roti – A flat, unleavened bread with a distinction of being black on the inside due to the use of the Mandua flour that is black in color. This bread is eaten with a lot of Butter or Ghee. It can also be eaten with Curd and Mango Pickle or Mixed Pickle. +++++ Chainsoo - Chainsoo is a preparation of Urad daal (black gram). Due to the high protein content of this daal it is said to be difficult to digest but that gets nullified by the roasting of the daal. In the far reaches of the Gharwal regions where electricity has not reached, this daal is probably still made the old way by grinding on a Silbatta, which resulted in the ground daal being damp. After the advent of the dry grinder it is possible to grind this daal without the addition of water and results in a much more flavorful version. Ingredients Whole Kali Urad (Black Gram seeds) - 1 cup Mustard Oil - 1/2 cup (can be substituted with refined oil if mustard is unavailable) Garlic - 4 to 5 cloves (more if you are a garlic lover) bruised Ginger – 1 inch piece reduced to a paste in a mortar and pestle Cumin seeds - 1 tsp Black peppercorns - 4 - 5 Red chilies whole - 4 to 5 Asafetida - a pinch Dry coriander powder - 1/2 tsp Turmeric powder - 1/4 tsp Red chilies powder - 1/2 tsp Water - 3 cups Salt - 3 tsp or to taste Garam masala-1/2 tsp Amchur – to taste Method 1. Grind the Black Gram coarsely. Place an iron kadhai** on a moderate flame. 2. Heat the oil in the kadhai, splutters the Cumin. Roast the daal for a while till the aroma of roasted daal rises from the vessel, Add all the dry spice powders except the amchur. 3. Add the salt, ginger and water. Bring the whole to a rolling boil. 4. Cook till the daal becomes very soft. Lower the flame, and Simmer for 20-30 minutes. Add the bruised garlic about 2 minutes before you remove from the flame. Before removing from the flame, stir in the Garam masalla. Garnish with pure ghee and chopped coriander leaves. Serve with hot steamed rice. - In our home we cook the Chainsoo in the Ghee itself, and do not add any later. We do however garnish with coriander. - In a variation to the shorter process above the whole daal is roasted, then ground and stir-fried in the oil. **Though an iron kadhai is preferred for this recipe because of the chemical input of cooking in it, any deep heavy utensil may be used instead) +++++ Gulgula - A sweet, local snack prepared in Garhwal that is also made on festive occasions as a foil to the Urad Pakoris. Ingredients Wheat Flour - 100 Gms. Jaggery - 200 Gms. Fennel seeds 5 Gms. Mustard Oil 200 Mls. Water As required Cardamom Powder ½ tspn Method 1. Soak and dissolve Jaggery in hot water and let it cool. 2. Make a paste of the cooled jaggery and water and the flour. 3. Add Fennel seeds, Sweet Spice powder and mix well. 4. Heat Oil in a pan and put a spoon full of the mixture. Deep-fry. - A smashed banana can be added to the batter before frying. +++++ Jhangora Ki Kheer – A sweet preparation, which is served as a Dessert and is prepared with Jhangora (a local cereal), Milk and Sugar. +++++ Jholi - In Garhwali, Jhol means very thin gravy. A Jhol can be made out of tomatoes, potatoes and other tubers. On the other hand Jholi is gravy made out of curd. It is comparatively much thicker than a Jhol and similar to Phanu in preparation. (Some of the Indian egulleters might recognize this as a Kadhi) Ingredients Besan (chick pea flour) or Rice flour - 1 cup Curd - 3 cups Oil or Ghee - 1/2 cup Garlic - 4 to 5 cloves Cumin seeds - 1 tsp Red chilies whole - 4 to 5 Asafetida - a pinch Dry coriander powder - 1/2 tsp Turmeric powder - 1/2 tsp Red chilies powder - 1/2 tsp Water - 3 cups Salt - 3 tsp or to taste 1 cucumber grated or chopped spinach or spring Onion leaves -optional Fenugreek seeds Method 1. Mix besan, turmeric powder and salt. Gradually add water continuously folding with a spatula to make a thick paste. Add Curd and blend the mixture well. 3. In a sauce pan or Kadhai heat the fat. Add the Cumin and splutter, add the Asafetida. Immediately pour the curd mix into the frying pan. 4. Let the Jholi cook for about 10-15 minutes till the gravy starts thickening and the raw smell of the flour is gone. If you are using rice flour then cook it for few minutes more. Add more water to keep the consistency thin. 5. Before taking it off from heat, add the optional grated cucumber or a handful of chopped spinach leaves or chopped spring onion leaves. Cook for few more minutes till the leaves are tender. Garnish with additional ghee (entirely optional), coriander leaves and green chilies (slit apart into two pieces) and serve with steamed rice. +++++ Kafuli - Kafuli is a thick green curry (for want of a better word) made as an accompaniment to steamed rice or Rotis made from green leafy vegetables. In Pahari cooking it is made with Pahadi palak or Rye. However a lot of Paharis have moved away from their home ground to areas where Pahadi palak and Rye are not so easily available. They have adapted the recipe to normal Spinach as follows. Ingredients Spinach - 2 bunches, Fenugreek leaves, (Methi) optional - 1/2 bunch Green chilies - 4 to 5 Oil - 2 tbsp (preferably mustard oil) Garlic - 4 to 5 cloves, Ginger - a 3 cm piece, Cumin seeds - 1 tsp Asafetida - a pinch Dry coriander powder - 1/2 tsp Turmeric powder - 1/4 tsp Rice powder or rice paste - 1 tbsp Curd- 2tbsp (optional) Water - 1-2 cup Salt - 2 tsp or to taste Method 1. Chop previously washed spinach and Fenugreek in running water and boil both vegetables along with the green chilies in a little water till tender. (A Pressure cooker or microwave can be used here). When cooked smash it against the walls of the utensil it has been cooked in. The result should be a coarse puree.(Do not use a blender as that will result in a smooth puree and the dish will lose its texture). 2. Finely pound ginger and garlic. Heat the oil in a frying pan. Add garlic and ginger. When the garlic and ginger are browned, add the cumin seeds and Asafetida. Add spinach and fenugreek puree, turmeric powder, dry coriander powder and salt. 3. Add required amount of water to Kafuli and bring to boil. Now add rice paste or rice powder dissolved in water to thicken. 4. Cover and cook for 8 - 10 minutes on slow fire till the gravy is thick. If dry add some water and boil. Garnish with pure ghee and serve hot with roti or steamed rice. - To add sourness, we usually add a tomato or two into greens in the first step in which case we omit the curd. +++++ Kandalee (Green Leafy Vegetable Dish) - The Kandalee leaves are locally known as 'Bichhu Ghas' and are available in Uttarakhand. I believe this is or is a form of Poison ivy The leaves have to be bruised with a heavy object before they are cooked to remove all the thistles. +++++ Kulath / Gehat Daal - This is a very special dish in the region of Uttarakhand. The pulse Kulath is a weakness of most Paharis. It can be eaten with Boiled Rice, Roti, Bread or Pita. Kulath Gahat Soup / Kulath Paranthe - A clear soup is made of Kulath Daal. The cooked kernels of the daal are then used to make a version of the stuffed paranthas that are so loved in North India. +++++ Mandua ki Roti – flat unleavened bread made by mixing Mandua flour with normal Flour. Mandua Flour is a local cereal and very high in fiber, which makes it very nutritious +++++ Phaanu - Phanu is also made of daal like Chainsoo, but in this case the Daal is soaked in water for about 4 to 6 hours before its use. Different daals like Gahat, Arhar or green Mung can be used to prepare Phanu. Ingredients Gahat / Kulath, (Horse gram) or Arhar - 1 cup soaked overnight (in the case of Arhar 1-2 hours) Oil - 1/2 cup (preferably mustard oil) Garlic - 4 to 5 cloves Ginger - 1/2 inch piece Green chilies - 3 to 4 Jakhiya or Cumin seeds - 1 tsp Asafetida - a pinch Dry coriander powder - 1/2 tsp Turmeric powder - 1/4 tsp Water - 3 cups Salt - 2 tsp or to taste Method: 1. Rub the soaked daal in running water so that the loosened seed coverings come off. Swirling to wash the coverings away. Then, grind it into a dry thick paste in blender along with green chilies, garlic and ginger. 2. Place a pan on a moderate flame. Spread a little oil on the base of the pan and spread a little of the Daal paste on it to make a pancake. When it is cooked through use the end of a spatula or a knife to cut the pancake into diamond shapes or strips. Push to one side and add the rest of the oil to the pan. Splutter the Jakhiya/Cumin and add the Asafetida. 3. Mix water with the remaining paste making it of pouring consistency. Now add Gahat paste, turmeric powder, dry coriander powder and salt to the pan. Stir and cover. 4. Cover and cook for about 10 minutes over a slow flame. The gravy should have pouring consistency. If thick add some more water and heat till it boils. Garnish with pure ghee and chopped coriander leaves. Serve with steamed rice. +++++ Thinchwani – Thinchwani is traditionally made using Pahari Mooli (White Radish), which is round in shape or potatoes or a combination of both. I have had this just once when one of my husbands relatives from higher up in the hills came a visiting and brought these Moolis with them. Normal Mooli or White Radish can also be substituted. The preparation is called by this name as the radish root or potato is never cut, but crushed (thinchao) into pieces. Ingredients Radish root - 3 to 4 Potato - 1 Oil or Ghee - 2 tbsp Garlic - 4 to 5 cloves Ginger - 3 cm piece Onion-1 medium chopped Yogurt I bowl or Tomato- 3- 4 chopped Dry Faran or Cumin seeds - 1 tsp Red chilies whole - 4 to 5 Asafetida - a pinch Dry coriander powder -1/2 tsp Turmeric powder - 1/2 tsp Red chilies powder - 1/2 tsp Water - 6 cups Salt - to taste Sesame – roasted two table spoons Method 1. Wash the vegetables well, peal and crush them into small pieces. Crush also ginger and garlic. 2. Heat oil in a frying pan on a moderate flame. Add the crushed vegetables and ginger and stir-fry for 2 to 3 minutes. Remove from pan and set aside. 3. In the remaining oil add the cumin seeds, when they start to splutter add the red chilies and asafetida. Put in the chopped onion and fry till light brown. Add the spice powders and fry for few seconds more. Add the fried vegetables, salt and some water. 4. If using tomatoes add them in now. When the tomatoes are cooked add remaining water and pressure cook or cook on a slow fire for about 30 minutes or till the radish becomes soft. If using yogurt then add the yogurt after the vegetables are cooked but before water is added. Garnish with coriander leaves and green chilies (slit apart into two pieces). +++++ Til (sesame) ki Chutney - This chutney is mainly prepared during winters and is really good with Tor daal and steamed rice or with Gahat ke paranthe. It can also be used as a dip for various snacks. Ingredients Til (sesame seeds) – 200 gms Corriander leaves- 1 handful Ginger – I inch piece Green chilies- 2-3 nos. Lemon Juice – Juice of 1 Bada Nimbu or big lemon ¾ cup juice of small lemons Salt to taste Sugar 1/2 tsp (optional) Mint leaves - handful Cumin – Roasted 1 tsp Method 1. Dry Roast sesame seeds in a pan on a moderate flame for 4-5 minutes. Take care not to overdo it. 2. Grind sesame seeds with coriander leaves, garlic cloves and green chilies. Add lemon juice and grind to a fine paste. Adjust salt and sugar. - A variation of this recipe is the Mooli and Til Chutney my mother in law makes. She cuts a couple of moolis (White Radish) into finger length sticks and leaves them under a fan to dry for a couple of hours. Then adds them to the chutney with chilies cut in half lengthwise. - This chutney is usually made with “bade Nimbu” large lemon that people normally have growing in their kitchen garden. They are quite huge so one is generally enough but can be substituted by the other normal ones. - In Our home we also add a tbsp of roasted Cumin to the sesame when we grind it. +++++ Roat – Roat are a mildly sweet pancake traditionally made in large quantities at weddings to give to the groom’s party for their journey home. They are favored because of their long keeping quality. They are traditionally made in a wooden mold but work just as well as follows. Whole meal wheat flour (Gahun ka atta) - 2 cups Cold milk - 1/2 cup Butter Oil (Ghee) - 150 grams Green cardamom (Ilaichi) - 1/2 tsp Aniseed (Saunf) - 1 tsp Jaggery (gur) - 1 1/2 cups Water - 1 cup Method 1.Heat the water and dissolve the jaggery in it. Sieve the jaggery solution through a muslin cloth. Set aside, and allow the solution to cool. 2. Mix thoroughly the wheat flour with the milk along with two-tbsp. ghee. Add Saunff, Ilachi and mix well. Add the jaggery solution to the prepared wheat flour, gradually kneading it. 3. Continue adding the jaggery solution and kneading the floor till it turns into a stiff dough. Make thick roats like roties out of the dough. 4. Place an iron tawa on a moderate flame. Pour about a tsp of Ghee on it. When the ghee gets moderately hot, place the roat on the tawa. Turn the roat upside down and add more ghee to cook if needed. Cook each roat till it becomes brown. Remove the roat from the tawa. Serve it when cool. +++++ Arsa - A sweet delicacy, which is again made on occasions of Marriages and Festivals. It is a very unique sweet and can be stored for upto 15-20 days. Since it is prepared from rice and jaggery (Brown Sugar), it is very sweet and nutritious. It is traditionally made in Mustard Oil but can also be made with ghee (clarified Butter). Ingredients Rice flour (Chawal ka atta) - 2 cups Mustard Oil - 150 grams Resins - 100 grams Sugar - 1 1/2 cups Water - 1 cup Method 1. Heat the water and dissolve the sugar in warm water. Allow the solution to cool and sieve it through a muslin cloth. Set aside. 2.Add the sugar solution gradually kneading the rice flour into a soft dough. Place an iron frying pan (kadhai) on a moderate flame. Pour about 100 grams ghee in it. When the ghee gets moderately hot deep fry small poorie like arsas made out of the dough. 3. Cook each arsa till it becomes brown. Remove off the flame. +++++ Swala - These are salty Puris, which are stuffed with Tur Dal. Swala can be eaten with lots of Butter or Curd. They are high in fat and very tasty. +++++ Tor Ki Daal - Like Kulath or Gehat ki daal Tor is another specialty of the Gharwal region. It is equally well loved. Tor daal is seasonal and usually made in the winter as it is considered heavy. Dadhim Chutney Naal Badi ka saag Mooli Ki chatni Gehat Ka Paratha Paleu – Jhungriyal in Matha Pinna Ka Saag – Til is crushed into a crumbly paste to facilitate a release of the oils. This resulting paste is then cooked wit flour and chickpea flour and water in which rice has been boiled to make a savoury curry. Kumaoni Recipes – Since I am married into a Gharwali family, I do not have too much information on Kumaoni recipes. I have listed as many recipes as I could collect, but will have to get into detail at a later stage. Ras - A very appetizing and highly nutritious dish made from a mixture of several daals. It is typically eaten in winters along with steamed rice and bhang ki chatni. It is usually made in iron Kadahi. Gandherni and Jamboo are two ingredients that I need to find out more about but it does not sound as if the recipe will suffer greatly without them. Ingredients Gahat (Horse Gram) - 1/2 cup Rajma-(Kidney Bean) 1/4 cup Lobia (Cowpea) - 1/4 cup Kala Chana (Black Chickpea) - 1/4 cup Kabuli Chana (White Chickpea)- 1/4 cup Whole Urad (Black Gram) - 1/4 cup Bhatt (Black Soybean)- 1/2 cup Corriander powder-1tsp Cumin powder-1tsp Red chili powder-1/2 tsp Garam masala-1/2 tsp Ghee-2tb.sp Whole red chilies Salt to taste Method 1.Soak all the daals overnight and next day boil them in plenty of water till soft. 2.Mash the daals well and strain the Ras ie. The stock. Mash and strain the remaining pulp again till the water runs clear. 3.Put the stock on heat and keep boiling till it starts to thicken. 4. While boiling add turmeric, coriander powder, cumin powder, red chili powder, garam masalla and salt to the ras. 5.When Ras is gravy like consistency, take off from heat. 6.For tadka (tempering), heat ghee, put whole red chilies, pinch of asafetida, Cumin, Gandherni and Jamboo. When seeds crackle, pour over Ras. Serve with lots of ghee and rice. +++++ Bhaang ki Chutney Ingredients Bhaang (Hemp) seeds- 1-2tbsp Corriander leaves (optional)- 1/2 cup Green chilies- 2-3 nos. Juice of lemon- 2-3 tb sp. Method 1. Roast bhaang seeds in a dry pan till they crackle. 2. Grind together with Coriander, green chilies, salt and yogurt. - In place of yogurt, lemon juice can be used. Strain the chutney to remove the coarse covering of bhaang seeds. +++++ Singhal Ingredients Semolina (Sooji) - 2 cups Curd - 1 cup (well churned) Butter Oil (Ghee) – 250 grams Sugar – 50 grams (ground to a fine power) Banana – one (made into pulp) Method 1. Mix thoroughly the Semolina with 50 grams Ghee and add the banana pulp. Mix again to a uniform consistency. Put aside. 2. Take the curd add the sugar power and mix well. Soak semolina mix in curd mix. Keep aside for about 10 -20 minutes, depending upon the ambient temperature. 3. Place an iron frying pan (kadhai) on a moderate flame. Pour about 200 grams ghee on it. When the ghee gets moderately hot make thick jalebis with the semolina paste. Cook for about 5 to 10 minutes by turning repeatedly to the opposite side till reddish brown. 4. When both sides are cooked decant and takeout the singhals. Put off the flame when all singhals are cooked. Garnish with cardamom powder and serve hot. +++++ Bhatt ki Churdkani Ingredients Black Bhatt (Black Soybean) - 1 cup Onion- 1 medium Cumin - 1/2 tsp Coriander powder- 1tsp Cumin powder- 1 tsp Rice paste or plain flour Chilli powder- 1/2 tsp Oil-2 tbsp Salt to taste Water-4 or 5 cups Method 1. Soak bhatt overnight. 2. Heat oil in a karahi. Add Cumin, chopped onion and soaked bhatt together in the karahi and fry till the onions start getting brown. 3. Now add 1-2 tsp of plain flour and fry again for few minutes. Put Turmeric powder, Coriander powder, cumin powder and chilli powder. Fry for few more seconds. 4. Add 4 cups of water and cook on high flames. Cover and simmer for 30-40 mins or till bhatt is soft and curry is thick. The color of churkaani should be dark greenish black. It is served with hot steamed rice. Shai Ingredients Semolina (Sooji) - 2 cups Curd - 2 cups ( well churned) Butter Oil (Ghee) – 150 grams Cooking Soda – 1/4 tsp Saunf – 1 tsp Sugar – 1 1/2 cups (ground to a fine power) Dry fruits (assorted) – 25 grams (cut into slivers) Method 1. Mix thoroughly the Semolina with the cooking soda along with one tsp. ghee. Add the curd and mix well into a uniform paste. 2. Place an iron frying pan (kadhai) on a moderate flame. Pour about 100 grams ghee on it. When the ghee gets moderately hot add saunf and the semolina paste to it. Reduce the flame. Cover the frying pan. 3. Cook like a pancake for about 15 to 20 minutes, occasionally removing the cover and tossing the cake upside down. Continue till both sides of the cake turn reddish brown. If needed add few more teaspoon ghee. 4. When both sides are cooked add the sugar. As the sugar melts and gets absorbed by the pancake, put off the flame. Garnish with dry fruits and serve hot. Badil Ingredients Black gram (Kala chana) whole - 1 cup Mix of Arhar, Munn, and chana daals - 2 cups Oil or Ghee - 1/2 cup Garlic - 10 cloves Ginger – 2 cm. Piece Ajwain – 1 tsp Green chilies – 3 to 4 Cumin seeds - 1 tsp Black pepper - 4 nos. Cinnamon - a 1.27 cm piece Clove - 4 nos. Asafetida - a pinch Dry coriander powder - !/2 tsp Turmeric powder - 1/2 tsp Red chilies powder - !/2 tsp Water - 2 cups Salt - 3 tsp or to taste Method 1. Put the frying pan on a moderate flame. Pour one-teaspoon oil. When the oil gets hot put a tarka of (asafetida) and Ajwain in the hot oil. When tarka is ready add two cups water and salt to taste. 2. When the water starts boiling then add the mixture of all the pulses (daals). Cover with a lid and cook for about 10 minutes on a moderate flame. If the water dries up add some more water. 3.Crush and grind the pulses mix with a ladle. Continue doing this till the pulses mix does not stick to the ladle. 4. Now apply some oil on a thali and pour the cooked pulses mix on it. Spread uniformly, and allow it to cool. On cooling and solidifying cut it into small cakes called badil. 5. Fry these badils in oil on a steel tawa. Serve on a plate with sweet& sour chutney and garnish with coriander leaves and grated coconut. Bhathawani Ingredients Daals: Black soybean (black bhatt) whole - 2 cup Black gram (kala chana) whole – 1 cup Gehat (Horse Gram) l - 1/2 cup Urad whole and Rajmah whole - ½ cup Green masala: Garlic – 8 to 10 cloves Onion – one Ginger – 2 cm piece For the Dry masalla: Cummins seeds - 1 tsp Black pepper - 4 nos. Cinnamon - a 1.27 cm piece Clove - 7 nos. Cardamom – 5 nos. Red chilies whole - 4 to 5 Coriander powder - 1 tsp Poppy seeds (khaskhas) – 1 tsp Rice thickener Rice powder – 1 tbs Salt - 2 tsp or to taste Water – one cup Misc. Ghee- 2 tbs Cumin- ½ tsp Fresh Coriander leaves – ½ cup Method 1. Wash the daals and soak them in water for about two hours. When the seeds have become well soaked, boil them with water in an iron utensil. Cook for about one and a half to two hours. Longer the daals are cooked the tastier the broth becomes. Alternately the daals can be cooked in a pressure cooker for 30 to 45 minutes. 2. Remove the seeds and keep the liquid broth aside. Grind all the green and dry masala into a uniform paste in little water. Mix rice powder, salt and water to make the rice thickener. 3. Add the masala paste to the rice thickener. Put an iron frying pan on a moderate flame. Pour the liquid broth and masala paste with the rice thickener. Cook for about ten minutes to get Thathawani. 4. Temper the Cumin in the hot oil and add to the Thathawani. Garnish with ghee and coriander leaves if desired. Common Urad ki Pakoris – Urad Pakoris are savoury fritters made from a paste of whole Urad Daal that has been seasoned with ginger, garlic and green chilli. These are then shaped into little circles with a hole in the middle and deep fried in mustard oil. Glossary of Ingredients Aamchur – Mango Powder – available as dried off white slices of Mango or a similar colored powder. Gahat / Kulath - Horse Gram – this Pulse is Oval in shape, small and brown, somewhat like Whole red lentils. It has a strong, earthy aroma and a fresh flavour. In the Gharwal region it is considered a heavy, hot daal and is generally consumed in the winter. Historically traces of this pulse have been found in the Indus Valley Heeng – Asafetida – The resin exuded by the roots of the shrub Ferulla Alliacea, Asafetida is most commonly available in dried powder form of a light ochre color. It is also available in the form of a dark Ochre Lump. The purest form is white and semi solid which turns reddish brown on exposure. Tor – (could be) Arhar / Thuvar – Pigeon Pea – I have concluded that this Pulse is either the whole form or a cousin of the commonly known Arhar. I am inclined toward cousin because I am told that it does not cook if husked and split like Arhar does. I also have not found any information on it under the name Tor. I am still looking though and will post a picture ASAP. This daal is small and round Burnt sienna in color and is also considered a winter daal. Urad Daal - Black Gram / Black Lentils – Small and Oblong the seeds are black in color. Husked, split black lentils are generally creamy white. Historically mentioned in the Vedas Urad is thought to be indigenous to India and of the same family as Mung.