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Soups, Part One: Thick Soups

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<P><B><U>SOUPS</U></B>

<P><B>PART ONE: THICK SOUPS</B>

<P>by Jack Lang and Andy Lynes

<P><B>CONTENTS</B>

<UL>

<LI><A HREF="#intro">INTRODUCTION</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#def">THICK SOUPS: A DEFINITION</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#equip">EQUIPMENT</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#basics">CREAMS AND COULIS</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#veloute">VELOUTES</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#bisques">BISQUES</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#recipes">THE RECIPES</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#bib">BIBLIOGRAPHY</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#append">APPENDIX: APPROVED COMBINATIONS</A></LI>

</UL>

<A NAME="intro"><B>INTRODUCTION</B></A>

<P>"…soup of the evening, Beautiful soup!"

(Lewis Carroll, <I>Alice In Wonderland</I>)

<P>There is something deeply reassuring about eating a bowl of soup; it not only satisfies hunger and warms bodies, but also feeds the soul. The ability to make good soups, like the ability to bake good bread, is a basic kitchen skill that every cook worth his salt must acquire. Once mastered, you need never want for a simple, quick meal again.

<P>Soup making calls on many of the same fundamental disciplines of cooking that its very near cousins stocks and sauces require - chopping, sweating, clarifying, sieving, pureeing, the preparation of meat, fish and vegetables etc - and are therefore an excellent vehicle for learning these kitchen basics.

<P>This module of the eGCI will cover soup making in all its guises. We begin in part one with thick soups, leaving the more demanding clear soups and delicate bouillons to part two. Thick soups are generally more straightforward to prepare than clear types, and far more forgiving in terms of the leeway available regarding quantity and types of ingredients, how those ingredients are prepared and for how long they are cooked. For example, you may roughly chop your vegetables if they are ultimately destined for the blender, but you will not want to garnish the crystal clear consomme (see the eGCI "On Consomme" course ) you have labored over for hours with anything other than a prefect concasse of tomato or vegetable paysanne.

<P>Having covered the basic disciplines, we then move on in part three to the likes of chowders, bread-based soups, cold soups and broths, and the varieties that don't fit neatly under the thick or clear headings as we have defined them.

<P><A NAME="equip"><B>EQUIPMENT</B></A>

<P>Making thick soups requires a few pieces of special equipment. The good news is that it's likely that you will own most of them already. If however you need to make a purchase, you will find the following items to have a wide range of cooking applications and useful even when you are not in the mood to make soup:

<UL>

<LI>Blender: essential if you want a velvet smooth result without raising a sweat</LI>

<LI>Mouli-legume (vegetable mill): purees like a food processor or blender, but also strains fibrous material that a blender would incorporate into the soup</LI>

<LI>Sieve: passing your pureed soup through a sieve will improve its texture.

<LI>Chinois: a very fine sieve for the finest, lightest results</LI>

<LI>Ladles: a small bowled ladle for pushing soup through sieves and a large bowled version for serving the soup, drip free</LI>

</UL>

<P><A NAME="def"><B>THICK SOUPS: A DEFINITION</B></A>

<P>Broadly speaking, thick soups divide into two main types:

<UL>

<LI><B>Purees and Coulis:</B> The thickening component is a puree of the primary ingredient, usually a starch. In olden times these involved much labor, but now with food processors and stick blenders they are easy. The term "puree" usually refers to a vegetable main component, while the term "coulis" to a meat or fish base, such as a Bisque.

<LI><B>Cremes and Veloute:</B> In classical cooking the thickening was flour (roux) based, either a béchamel (milk as dilutant) for Crème soups, or Velouté (stock as dilutant) for veloute soups. Making the base sauces is covered in the eGCI course Stock Based Sauces. In these lighter days, the flour-based roux is omitted and the mouth texture provided by more cream or equivalent high-fat or high-starch component such as a more puree (for crèmes), or egg yolk for veloute.

</UL>

<P>There is no hard-and-fast distinction; the same (or nearly the same) soup can be prepared as a puree, a crème or as a veloute, depending what is on hand.

<P><A NAME="basics"><B>CREMES AND COULIS</B></A>

<P>A good thick soup relies on the building of flavors. The process is a short and simple one, but you have the opportunity at each stage to add depth to the finished product. The following describes a method for making what might be viewed as a generic thick soup, taking elements from both the creme and couli styles.

<P>Start with a base, usually onion or shallot or maybe some fennel if your soup is going to include some fish or shellfish. Sweat in butter and some oil, being be careful not to color or burn the base as it will send a bitter note running right throughout your soup. This is the foundation of the dish and it will balance out the flavors you add after it.

<P>Next, add your main ingredient (carrot, potato, mushroom etc) and cook until tender. This will provide both the character and body of the soup so make sure you are using the best available of your chosen ingredient.

<P>Now add your liquid. What that liquid is will depend very much on the main ingredient, but generally a well flavored chicken stock will be most suitable (for detailed instructions on stock making, see the eGCI course on stocks and sauces). However, fish stock may be a more appropriate choice for fish soups. Other alternatives include an aromatic vegetable nage or sometimes water will do just fine.

<P>Pulses such as lentils and dried beans make excellent soups. These should be soaked if required and may either be cooked in advance or added to the base along with the cooking liquid and simmered until tender).

<P>At this point you should blend and sieve the soup. How smooth a result you require will dictate whether you use a mouli, blender, sieve or chinois. if you aspire to be the next Thomas Keller, you may even wish to employ all four.

<P>The final stages are crucial - too heavy a hand with the cream or seasonings will undo all your good work. Heavy (double) cream has the effect of mellowing flavors and too much of it will send them to oblivion. Similarly, too much salt and pepper may render the soup inedible. Taste carefully and remember that you will be eating a whole bowlful rather than just a teaspoon or so - what is nicely savory in small amounts could be unpleasantly salty or pepper-hot in larger servings.

<P>If you are using soft herbs like tarragon, basil, parsley and coriander, add these at the end of the cooking time. If used earlier, their delicate and volatile flavors and aromas will simply disappear up the extractor fan. More robust varieties such as bay leaves, rosemary or thyme can be safely added towards the beginning of the process to allow their flavors to permeate the soup properly.

<P><A NAME="veloute"><B>VELOUTES</B></A>

<P>You will find any number of "veloutes" on modern restaurant menus. It is a term widely used to describe both sauces and soups, but is more often than not misapplied. Given that classical veloutes are roux based and further thickened with a liaison of egg and cream, you are highly unlikely to have encountered the real thing anytime recently. These methods, though sound, have become deeply unfashionable in professional kitchens of repute. Most chefs would sooner serve you a Big Mac and fries than admit to cooking with a roux. Your average "veloute of celery" will simply be made from a base (as described above), puree, stock, maybe some wine and cream.

<P>In truth, it is easy to have some sympathy with this attitude. Classical veloutes may well be overly heavy on the modern palette and sit uncomfortably on the stomach to boot. Veloutes are very economical, which was why they were beloved of classical hotel kitchens. They dilute a little flavouring with a lot of stock and thickeners. Properly made they are very delicate. Alas all too often they are watery wall-paper paste.

<P>The basic classical proportions for a veloute soup are:

<UL>

<LI>50% veloute (3 ½ oz./100g roux per quart/1.5L dilutant),

<LI>25% puree or primary ingredient

<LI>25% stock or water

</UL>

<P>Begin by making the roux base by melting butter in a saucepan and stirring in flour until it is amalgamated and forms a smooth paste. This may be cooked for a few minutes to increase its color. A hot stock or broth is then whisked in brought to the boil and then allowed to simmer for 30-45 minutes to cook out the taste of the raw flour. Next add whatever puree you are using, be it mushroom, pea, asparagus or whatever takes your fancy.

<P>Make a liaison of 3 egg yolks beaten into 1/5th (75ml) of cream in a separate bowl then pour into a quart (1.5l) of the soup. Remove from the heat and whisk so that the yolks cook and thicken the soup but do not scramble. DO NOT BOIL after adding the egg liason or it will curdle. If this happens to you, curse, sieve the bits out of the soup and start again with the liaison. A teaspoon of corn flour added to the liaison makes it less sensitive to overheating.The soup may then be enriched even further by the addition of butter.

<P>Veloute soups may be served cold, in cups. In this case, as Escoffier writes “See it be sufficiently thin not to impaste the mouth of the consumer”

<P>The following is an illustrated example of a veloute soup using the above method and quantities.

<P><CENTER>Veloute Georgette (carrot and tomato)</CENTER>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">1: Make the roux</TD>

<TD ALIGN="center">2: 30gms roux to 500ml stock (4oz to a quart)</TD></TR>

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<TD WIDTH=250><IMG SRC="http://images.egullet.com/u7620/i3126.jpg" WIDTH=250 HEIGHT=187</TD></TABLE></TD>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">3: Allow to simmer gently on the side of the stove for 30 mins </TD>

<TD ALIGN="center">4: 250g/8 oz of carrot and tomato flavour 1lt/1.5pts </TD></TR>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">5:Cook and puree the carrot and tomato ( I microwaved them for 10 mins first) No need to peel the tomatoes, as we will be sieving later </TD>

<TD ALIGN="center">6: Add the veloute and blend</TD></TR>

<TR><TD><TABLE ALIGN=center border=0>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">7: Sieve; some will get left behind</TD>

<TD ALIGN="center">8: Mix an egg yolk with a teaspoon of Tapioca flour (or arrowroot or cornstarch or omit) </TD></TR>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">9: Mix with a little of the cold veloute, like making custard. Heat the rest to boiling. Pour the boiling veloute on the egg mixture, stir, return to the pan and reheat until it thickens; If you used tapioca or cornflour you can simmer gently without it breaking.</TD>

<TD >10: Finish with a cream swirl, and chopped chervil, parsley or chives</TD></TR><TABLE>

<BR><BR>

<P><A NAME="bisques"><B>BISQUES</B></A>

<P>Bisque is usually prepared with crayfish (prawns), lobster, or even shrimp and provides an excellent way to use up trimmings such as heads and tails. Bisque “A la Ancienne” indicates thickened with bread rather than rice, and garnished with fried bread croutons.

<P>Larousse Gastronomique tells us that the word bisque is centuries old and "suggests a connection with the Spanish province of Vizcaya which lends its name top the Bay of Biscay". It also states that it was "not until the 17th centuary that crayfish became the principal ingredient of this dish" which was originally spicy boiled meat or game.

<P>Start by cooking the shellfish; make a Mirepoix: 1 oz/25g each of carrot, onion, and parsley stalk or celery cut into very small dice. Brown this in butter; add a bay leaf and a sprig of thyme. Toss in about 1 ½ lbs/ 750g of the shellfish, cut into pieces. If only cooked shellfish is available, use only the heads and shells reserving the tail meat for garnish.

<P>Flame with a glass (2 tbs) of brandy. Add ¼ pt/100ml of stock, white wine, or water, a large pinch of salt, and a pinch of ground pepper and simmer for 10 minutes. Remove the shellfish and reserve the tail meat, return the heads and shells. Add 3oz/75g cooked rice.

<P>If you have a tough-enough liquidiser or food processor, blitz the lot. You may need to do this in small batches, and wrap a towel round the top of a food processor, as the contents will try to escape. Otherwise remove the hard parts of the shells and pound them in a mortar, blitzing the rest. Sieve twice, and then through a fine sieve to remove any trace of shell.

<P>Thin to consistency with stock or water. Correct the color with a little tomato paste, and check the seasoning. Finish with 2/ ½ oz/60g butter and 3 tbs of cream. Garnish with reserved tail meat.

<P><A NAME="recipes"><B>THE RECIPES</B></A>

<P>One of the joys about soup making is the almost inexhaustable variety it offers. The basic methods described in this course open up a world of possibilities, limited only by your imagination and good taste. The recipes provided therefore are offered as examples of some of the significant styles which incorporate a range of thickening agents from which you can develop your own soups. In addition, the <A HREF="#append">appendix</A> to part one of this module provides an extensive listing of "approved combinations" for your consideration.

<P><CENTER><B>Ultimate Universal Thick Vegetable Soup Recipe</CENTER></B></A>

<P>About 2 lb (1kg) vegetables peeled and cut into chunks (see below)<BR>

4 oz (100g) butter (olive oil if you must)<BR>

1 lb (500g) onions<BR>

wineglass (150ml) dry sherry (or Madeira or white wine)<BR>

2 pints/1.5Ltr water, stock or milk (see below)<BR>

Seasonings<BR>

<P>Peel and roughly chop the onions. In a large pan melt the butter and sweat the onions until golden. Add the peeled and chopped vegetables and the sherry or wine. Stir around a bit. Cover with a double layer of greaseproof paper or tinfoil to seal, put the lid on the pan and place on a very low heat for 45 minutes. Shake occasionally if you remember.

<P>Add the stock (use a good chicken stock for preference) to the vegetables. Add, milk if you want it creamier, or water if you are feeling mean or fat. Milk is better for white soups like onion, celery, or cauliflower. Don't boil after you add the milk.<BR>

<P>At this point you can have it as a chunky soup. Otherwise liquidize, either with a handheld blender in the pan or in batches in food processor. Sieve if you want a smoother texture. Sieve twice if you are a grand restaurant. Reheat gently (don't boil). Add more water, stock or milk if too thick. Check for seasonings. It will probably need quite a lot of salt and some pepper.

Serve and add a swirl of cream, crème fraiche or garnishes as you like, or as specified below.<BR>

<P>The following is an illustrated example of a thick soup made using the universal recipe described above and serves two as a starter.

<P><B><CENTER>Puree of Carrot (Potage Crecy)</CENTER></B>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">1: 125g(4 oz) of onion and<BR> 250g (8 oz) of carrot</TD>

<TD ALIGN="center">2: Sweat the onion in butter and add the carrot</TD></TR>

<TR><TD><TABLE ALIGN=center border=0>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">3: Cover with a kartouche<BR> (circle of greaseproof paper)</TD>

<TD ALIGN="center">4: 45 minutes over a gentle heat<BR> or in a low oven</TD></TR>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">5: Add the liquid (2 cups stock or<BR> milk or water) and blend</TD>

<TD ALIGN="center">6: Pass the soup through a sieve</TD></TR>

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<TR><TD ALIGN="center">7: Reheat, dilute if required<BR> check seasoning, add crouton</TD>

<TD >8: Left:Puree de Crecy a la Ancienne<BR> (carrot with crouton)<BR> Right: Veloute Georgette (carrot and tomato)</TD></TR><TABLE>

<BR><BR>

<P><CENTER><B>Brill Soup</B></CENTER>

<P>Although often forced to play second fiddle to its more illustrious cousin the turbot, brill is a prime fish with handsome good looks and fine, delicate flesh. This soup then is something of a guilty pleasure, requiring as it does for the expensive fillets to be blitzed to a puree and dispersed amongst more work-a-day ingredients. The luxurious results however justify this act of apparent culinary wantonness. You may of course substitute a less noble fish, salt cod works particularly well, but the texture will not be quite as smooth.

<P>a knob of butter<BR>

1 tablespoon of olive oil<BR>

1 onion, roughly chopped <BR>

1 small or half a large bulb of fennel, roughly chopped <BR>

1 clove garlic, smashed<BR>

1 large potato, cut into 1/2 inch dice<BR>

1.2 litres/2 pints fish stock<BR>

4 x fillets of brill (i.e the meat of one fish approx. 450g/1lb in weight )<BR>

150ml/5floz heavy(double) cream<BR>

salt and pepper<BR>

leaves from 8 stalks of parsley, chopped<BR>

leaves from 5 stalks of tarragon, chopped<BR>

<P>Sweat the onion and fennel in the butter and oil until tender but not coloured, add the garlic and cook for another 30-45 seconds. Stir in the potato dice and cover with the fish stock. Bring to the boil and simmer until the potato is nearly cooked through. Add the fish and poach gently until done. the time this takes will vary depending on the thickness of your fish, but allow between 5-7 minutes. <P>Puree the soup in a blender then pass through a sieve back into the pan. Season the soup and add the cream, a few tablespoons at a time, tasting as you go until you have the consistancy and flavour you want. Stir in the herbs and ladle into bowls.

<BR><BR><BR><BR>

<P><CENTER><B>Red Lentil Soup with Chili and Warm Spices</B></CENTER>

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<P>This soup is slightly unusual in that it employes lentils as its main thickening agent rather than a starchy vegetable, which is then enriched with creme fraiche, which also lends a refreshing note of acidity. The spices listed here should be taken as a suggestion, feel free to use your own favoured combinations.

<P>1 tablespoon groundnut oil<BR>

1 Medium red onion, roughly chopped<BR>

1 teaspoon each of grated garlic and ginger<BR>

1 red chili, finely chopped<BR>

1 tablespoon cumin<BR>

1 teaspoon ground coriander<BR>

1 teaspoon ground tumeric<BR>

170g/6 oz red lentils, washed and drained<BR>

2 medium tomatos, skinned and roughly chopped<BR>

1.2 litres/2 pints chicken stock<BR>

100ml/4fl oz creme fraiche<BR>

salt and pepper<BR>

fresh coriander, chopped<BR>

<P>Heat the oil in a large pan and sweat the red onion until tender but not colored. Add the garlic and ginger and cook for a further 30 seconds, then add the chili and spices. Cook for a minute or so then add the lentils and stock and bring to the boil. Add the chopped tomatos and simmer for 30 minutes or until the lentils are tender. Allow to cool slightly, then puree in a blender (you may have to do this in batches). Return to the heat, stir in the creme fraiche and adjust the seasoning. Ladle into bowls and garnish with a swirl of creme fraiche and some of the coriander.

<BR><BR>

<A NAME="bib"><B>BIBLIOGRAPHY</B></A>

<P>Larousse Gastronomique - Prosper Montagne (Editor)

<P>Time Life's The Good Cook: Soups - Richard Olney (Chief Consultant). Out of print.

<P>A Celebration of Soup: With Classic Recipes from Around the World - Lindsay Bareham

<P>The Conran Cookbook - Caroline Conran, Terence Conran, Simon Hopkinson

<P>Cooking At The Merchant House - Shaun Hill

<BR><BR>

<P><A NAME="append"><B>APPENDIX: APPROVED COMBINATIONS</B></A>

<P><UL>

<LI><A HREF="#appendix1">APPENDIX I: BISQUES</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#appendix2">APPENDIX II: CERMES</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#appendix3">APPENDIX III: PUREES</A></LI>

<LI><A HREF="#appendix4">APPENDIX IV: VELOUTES</A></LI>

</UL>

<P>Ask your questions about this course here.

<P><B>Course Editors:</B> Carolyn Tillie & Andy Lynes

<P><B>HTML Formatting:</B> Andy Lynes

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<P><A NAME="appendix1"><CENTER><B>APPENDIX I: APPROVED COMBINATIONS FOR BISQUES</B></CENTER></A>

<P><table width="100%" border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=3>

<tr>

<td width="20%" valign=top > <b> Name</span></b></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top > <b> Main component (puree)</span></b></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top > <b> Thickening</span></b></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top > <b> Finish</span></b></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top > <b> Garnish</span></b></p></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="20%" valign=top >Volaille “a la Reine”</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >chicken</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >2 oz./50g rice</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >3 eggs, ¼ pt.//100ml cream, 3 oz./75g

butter</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >white meat of chicken, diced</span></p></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="20%" valign=top >Gibier (Game) “au Chasseur”</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >roasted game, such as 6oz each of rabbit,

partridge, and pheasant </span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >½ pt. 200ml cooked lentils</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >butter glass/50ml of burnt brandy</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >wild mushrooms</span></p></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="20%" valign=top >Ardennaise</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >originally thrushes, now any feathered

game</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >5 oz./125g black rye bread</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >butter</span></p>

cream</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >julienne of game</span></p></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="20%" valign=top >Lapereau au Currie</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >rabbit (legs)</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >2 tbs. chopped onion, softened,</span></p>

curry spices,</span></p>

potato or corn flour</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >cream</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >Cooked rice</span></p></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="20%" valign=top >Mancelle</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >partridge or game</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >chestnuts</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top >butter</span></p></td>

<td width="20%" valign=top > game julienne</span></p></td>

</tr>

</table>

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<P><A NAME="appendix3"><CENTER><B>APPENDIX III: APPROVED COMBINATIONS FOR PUREES</B></CENTER></A>

<P><table width="100%" border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=3>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top> <p><b>Main Ingredient </b></p></td>

<td width="25%" valign=top> <p><b>Ingredients and Variants </b></p></td>

<td width="25%" valign=top> <p><b>Named </b></p></td>

<td width="25%" valign=top> <p><b>Garnish </b></p></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Apple </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top> 2 lbs./1kg apples (Granny Smith)

1 tbs. sugar </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Apple </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>crème fraiche or yogurt

cheesy croutons </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2 tsp. curry powder </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>toasted coconut </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Apricot and Marrow </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>1 lb./405g dried apricots

1 lb./450g marrow, pumpkin or courgette

(zucchini)

½ tsp. ginger

1 tbs. sugar </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>crème swirl

mint sprigs </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Asparagus </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2 lbs./1Kg asparagus trimmings </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Comtesse

(version A)

(white Asparagus) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a few asparagus tips, parsley, cream </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Gosford

(green Asparagus) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Montespan </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>peas, cream swirl </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Broad Bean </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2 lb./1Kg shelled broad beans

1tbs. sugar </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Pythagore </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>A few shelled broad beans removed from

their skins </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a)4 oz./100g hazelnuts </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>toasted nuts </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>b)juice and rind of 2 lemons </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>lemon slices

cream swirl

parsley </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Haricot beans </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>1 lb./500g soaked or tinned haricot beans </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Comtesse

( version B) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>crouton, parsley </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>(8oz/200g dried) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a)1lb./500g leeks </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>b)mixed vegetables </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Dartoise </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>garnish with small dice of coked carrots,

potatoes, turnips, celery etc </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>c) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Maria </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>As above with cream added </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>d)2 tbs. tomato puree </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Bretonn </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>e)½  bottle red wine </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>f)8 oz./200g sorrel or watercress

6 lettuce leaves </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Conde </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>cream </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Broccoli </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2 lbs./1Kg  broccoli </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>small sprigs of broccoli </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a)1 lb. apple

wineglass Calvados (optional) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>apple slices softened in butter </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Brussels Sprouts </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>1 lb/500g brussels sprouts

1 lb./500g  potatoes </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Flamande </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>crispy bacon bits </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a)8 oz./200g chestnuts (use canned or

canned puree)

1 tsp. sugar

nutmeg </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>b)Can substitute hazelnuts for chestnuts </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>c)2 tbs. mustard (add with stock) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>cress sprouts </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Cabbage </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>cabbage (mostly)

carrots

turnips

leeks </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top> Garbure </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>croutons </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a) lots of home-grown vegetables </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Gabure  Fermiere </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>cheese croutons </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>b) lots of shop vegetables </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Gabure Paysanne </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>c) turnips, green beans </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Garbure Bearnaise </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>salt pork (cooked with the vegetables)

or confit of goose

croutons </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>d)potatoes, courgette (zucchini)s, beetroot, </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Garbure Dauphinoise </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Its traditional in the South West of France

to “faire La Chabrot” which consists in finishing its soup by pouring

wine from one’s glass into the remains in the plate and drinking the

mixture </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Carrot </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2lbs./1 Kg Carrots

1 tbs. Sugar </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Crecy </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Cream

strips of carrot </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Crecy a la Ancienne </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>croutons </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>b) 1 lb. potato </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Crecy a la Briarde </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>croutons, chopped parsley </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>c)8 oz./200g apple </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>apple slices softened in butter </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>d)2 tbs. coriander seeds </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>cream swirl, sprigs fresh coriander </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>e)4 pieces fresh ginger </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>finely chopped preserved ginger </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>f) 1 lb./500g leeks; 1 tbs. mustard </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>toasted almonds </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>g) juice and grated rind of 4 oranges </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>caramelised orange slices/blanched strips

of orange zest </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>h) leeks tomatoes

mushrooms rice </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Genin </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>shredded sorrel/watercress </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>i) 1 l.b/500g peas </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Medicis </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>cream, parsley </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Cauliflower </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2 lbs./1 Kg cauliflower

1 tbs. sugar </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>DuBarry </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>cauliflower sprigs

parsley </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a)Make with milk, </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Grand Tante </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>thicken with egg yolks </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>b) 4 oz./200g  sharp cheddar cheese

1 tsp. English mustard </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>cheesy croutons </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>c) caramelised cauliflower - cook the

cauliflower first in a hot non-stick pan or wok (+ oil) with the sugar

until caramelised </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>caramelised cauliflower sprigs </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>(or Use roasted cauliflower) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>eGullet </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>d) 2 oz. white chocolate

extra vanilla (optional) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Blumenthal </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Dust with cocoa or chocolate curls </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>e) red pepper, de-seeded and chopped;

chilli to taste </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>chopped red pepper </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Celeriac </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2 lbs./1Kg celeriac </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Pierre-le-Grand </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>celeriac dice, cream </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Celery </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2 lbs./ 1Kg celery (or lovage) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>garlic crouton </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a)2 tsp. curry powder </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>b)2 tbs. dried dill seeds </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>dill fronds </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>c)8 oz./200g chestnut (tinned or puree) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Clairmont </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>balls of chestnut puree </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>d)make with chicken stock </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>La Valiere </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Fried Onions, cream

 profiterole stuffed with chicken </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>e)2 tbss rice

diced celery </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Lison </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>sago pearls </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Courgette (zucchini) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>2 lbs./1 Kg courgette (zucchini) or marrow </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>courgette (zucchini) strips </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>a)Use cucumber instead or courgette (zucchini) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>Doria </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>mint spigs

cream swirl </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>b)1 lb./500g fennel

juice and grated rind 2 oranges </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>fennel frond/diced fennel </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>c)2 tbs. fresh rosemary (may need sieving) </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>rosemary sprig </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>d)2 tsp. curry powder </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top>toasted nuts </td>

</tr>

</table>

<table width="100%" border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=3>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Fennel</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs. fennel<br>dash Pernod</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fennel fronds<br>finely diced fennel</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >4 oz./100g ground almonds</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >toasted almonds</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >large red pepper, de-seeded and chopped</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >red pepper dice</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Jerusalem Artichoke</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs./1Kg peeled artichokes<br>lemon Juice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Palestine</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >bacon bits</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Leek and Potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb. leek<br>1 lb. potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Parmentier <br>When served iced, called Vichysoisse</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chives<br>cream swirl</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Add 8 oz./250g carrot</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Bonne Femme</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Add 8oz./250g wild mushrooms</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Pastourelle</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >mushrooms, fried potatoes, cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs./1Kg leeks</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Poireaux</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >croutons, cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Lentil</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g soaked lentils (8 oz./250g

dried)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Esau</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream, croutons</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >glass Madeira<br>make with game stock</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Gentilhomme</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >diced Ham, croutons</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Marsala<br>1 tsp. truffle oil<br>make with game stock</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Imperator</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >ravioli stuffed with foie gras,<br>truffles, Royale<br>Quenelle of Pheasant</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >8 oz./250g dried lentils, soaked<br>8 oz./250g sorrel or watercress</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Mere David</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream, sprigs of watercress</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Lettuce</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 large lettuces</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Pere Tranquil<br>(lettuce contains traces of opiates)<br>Also called Crème Judic</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Mushroom</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs. mushroom</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >crouton</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb. apple</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >apple slices softened

in butter</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >spring onion<br>ginger</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chopped spring onions<br>shiitake mushrooms

slices softened in butter</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Nettle</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g young nettles<br>1 lb./500g potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Orties</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream, croutons</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Onion</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2  lbs./1Kg onion (in addition to

those in the recipe)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >nutmeg</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >make with milk</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cheesy croutons</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >12 sage leaves</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >deep fried sage leaves</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g onion<br>1 lb./500g potato<br>large leek</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Flamande<br>(Version b)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Parsnip</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs./1Kg parsnips</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fried onions or leeks</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 tsp. curry powder</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g turnips</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Nip and Nip</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Pea </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs./1Kg peas (frozen peas OK)<br>1 tbs. sugar</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Pois Frais </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >extra peas</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Saint Germain</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >croutons</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Suzon</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >poached egg (preferably quail eggs)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Faubonne</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >julienne of vegetables</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Fontanges</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >parsley, cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >large bunch mint</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Pois Frais a la Menthe</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >mint sprigs</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >lettuce</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Ambassadeur</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chopped  <br>lettuce/chervil/parsley/<br>sorrel/watercress</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Saint Cloud</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream swirl</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g pear<br>2 bunches watercress</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Saint Marceaux</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >slices of pear/watercress</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g leek</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Camelia</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >shredded leek, cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >make with mutton stock</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Greque(A)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream swirl/cooked white of leek/chicken

breast</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >thicken with tapioca</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Lamballe</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >julienne carrots, leeks cabbages</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Longchamps</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cooked vermicelli , chopped parsley</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Longueville</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >spaghetti instead of vermicelli</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Marigny</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >peas, French beans, <br>chopped parsley</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Marcilly</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >garnish with chicken quenelles</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Navarin</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >garnish with prawns, chopped parsley</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Pumpkin</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs./1Kg pumpkin<br>use milk</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Potiron </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cheesy croutons </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb. 500g leeks</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >4oz./500g  gruyere cheese</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Bresanne</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cooked Pasta shapes</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >saffron (infused in milk)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb.500g tomatoes</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Greque (b)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fried croutons</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb. 500g potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Marianne</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cheesy crouton</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb. 500g potato<br>8 oz. leeks</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Marichere</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >shredded lettuce</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Smoked Haddock</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./1Kg skinned undyed smoked haddock<br>make with milk</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Chowder</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >croutons<br>cream<br>poached egg<br>bacon bits<br>cubed cooked potato</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >8 oz./250g sweet corn kernels (frozen

or tinned OK)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Sorrel or Spinach or Swiss Chard</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g green leafy vegetable<br>1 lb./500g potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Sante</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >make with water</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Sport</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >garnish with pasta</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Sweetcorn</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs./1Kg sweet corn</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Mais</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Sweet corn kernels</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 tbs. curry powder</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >toasted nuts</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >tin crab meat</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >few prawns</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >8 oz. salted peanuts</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >toast rounds spread with peanut butter

or chocolate spread</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Tomato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs./1Kg tomato<br>2 tbs. sugar<br>1 tbs. rice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >basil leaves</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >4 oz./250g celery<br>4 oz./250g carrot</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Andalouse</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chopped and de-seeded red pepper</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >red pepper</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >made with milk</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Carmen</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chopped red pepper and cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Malakoff</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >shredded spinach</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >make with chicken stock</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Milanaise</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >macaroni, truffles (or mushrooms) ham,

cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Pompadour</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >shredded lettuce</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 tbs. rice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Portugaise</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cooked rice</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Solferino</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >carrot and potato balls,</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Turnips</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb. /500g turnips<br>1 lb.  500g potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Freneuse</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Bonvalet</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chopped French beans and peas, chopped

parsley</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >2 lbs./1kg Swede (Rutabaga)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Norvegienne</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >julienne of beetroot, cream</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >make with milk<br>pinch mixed spice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Vierge</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >slices of French bread</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Watercress</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >1 lb./500g watercress<br>1 lb. 500g potato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Cressoniere</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream, crouton</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >sorrel, parsley, watercress or  other

herbs</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Herbes</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chopped herbs (see also Sante)<br>see also watercress and Haricot or watercress

and lentil</td>

</tr>

</table>

</TD></TABLE>

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<TABLE bgcolor="white">

<TD>

<P><A NAME="appendix4"><CENTER><B>APPENDIX IV: APPROVED COMBINATIONS FOR VELOUTES</B></CENTER></A>

<P><table width="100%" border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=3>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top ><b>Name: Veloute</b></td>

<td width="15%" valign=top ><b>Base stock</b></td>

<td width="15%" valign=top ><b>Puree or flavour</b></td>

<td width="25%" valign=top ><b>Garnish/Finish</b></td>

<td width="30%" valign=top ><b>Notes</b></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Agnes Sorel</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >mushroom</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >julienne of mushrooms, chicken, tongue</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Celebrated beauty and Mistress of Charles VII

of France (1422-1450)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Bagration (gras)</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >veal</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >macaroni; grated cheese (think thin mac-and-cheese)</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Pierre Prince Bagration (1765-1822) Russian

General killed at the Battle of Borodino.</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Bagration Maigre</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >mushroom</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fish quenelle</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Boieldieu</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >quenelles of chicken stuffed with foie gras</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >(Francois Adrien) French Composer of Le Calife

de Bagdad and La Dame Blanche (Q.V). One time organist of Tsar's Chapel.

(1775 - 1834)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Borely</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >mussels</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Bourdaloue</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >rice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >tomato Royale (red); chicken Royale (white);

haricot beans (yellow); asparagus Royale (green); carrot Royale (orange)</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >French cleric and preacher 1632-1704</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Cambaceres</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >pigeon</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >crayfish bisque</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >pigeon quenelles stuffed with crayfish</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Jean, Jacques Cambacérès, Regis de Cambaceré

1753 - 1824. Duke of Palma</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Cardinal</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >See Homard<br>

Named after Cardinal Richelieu?</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Carmelite</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish: sole and whiting; lemon juice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >quenelle of filets of sole and fish quenelle</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Religious order</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Carmen</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >tomato; rice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >dice of tomato and red pepper</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Bizet’s Opera</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Caroline</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >almonds; cream of rice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Roayle with almond milk</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Celeri</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >celery</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >celery</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top>  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Ceres</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >green wheat</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Chanoinesse</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >crayfish</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >soft roes in butter</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Cannoness</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Chartreuse</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >dice of tomato<br>

small ravioli stuffed with spinach, foie gras, and chopped mushrooms;

chervil</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Cherville</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >game</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Rabbit</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >morels, rabbit meat, cream, madeira</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Chervreuse</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >semolina; cream</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >julienne of truffles, and chicken; </td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Chicoree</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >endive</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fried bread croutons</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Choisy</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >lettuce</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >sorrel and rice</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >See Judic</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Clermont</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >celery and chestnut</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >roundels of fried onions and small balls of

chestnut puree; cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Columbine</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >pigeon</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >flavour with caraway</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >julienne of pigeon fillets and quenelles</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Comtesse</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >asparagus</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >lettuce chiffonade; asparagus tips</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Cressonniere</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >watercress</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >watercress  leaves</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Pourpier</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >purslane</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Crevettes a la Mignon</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >shrimps oyster juice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fish quenelles, ½ pink, ½ white, green peas,

truffles<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Crevettes a la Normande</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >shrimp tails, poached oysters, butter, cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >D’Artois</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >White haricot beans</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >parsley; brunoise of vegetables</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top > Dartois (or a la d'Artois) is the name

of various recipes dedicated to the name of Comte d'Artois, the future

King Charles X of </span><span style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:120%;

font-family:Verdana'>France</span><span style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:

120%;font-family:Verdana'> (1824-1830).</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Dame Blanche</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >sweet almond cream</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >white of chicken and chicken quenelle</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Comic Opera by Boieldieu from the novel by Sir

Walter Scott</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Danoise</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >cucumber</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fried bread crouton</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >duck</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >artichoke</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >duck, mushrooms, </span><span

style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:120%;font-family:Verdana'>marsala</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Dieppoise</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >mussels, leeks, mushrooms</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >mussels, shrimp tails</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Derby</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >soubise (browned onion, rice)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chicken quenelles stuffed with foie gras, rice,

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >curry</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Diane</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >partridge</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >game quenelles, truffles,cream, </span><span

style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:120%;font-family:Verdana'>Madeira</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Divette</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fish quenelles, truffle, dice of crayfish</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Butter and cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Doria</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >cucumber</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cucumber balls, rice, cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Daughter of Labouchré, married Prince de Rudini</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Dubarry</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >cauliflower</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >small cauliflower florets, parsley, cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Marie Jeanne Gomard de Vaubernier, Comtesse

Dubarry (1741-1793) <br>

Mistress of Louis XV. </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Ecreivisses a la Joinville</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >crayfish (prawn)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >crayfish tails, julienne of mushrooms, <br>

butter and cream<br>

serve with glass of fine champagne</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Francots de Joinville, <br>

Duc d´Orleans third, son of Louis Philippe. Sailor and author (1818-1900)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Ecreivisses a la Lucullus</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >crayfish tails<br>

Cognac</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Lucullus lived in Ancient Rome from "15%"-57BC</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Ecreivisses a la Princesse</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >whiting quenelles, asparagus tips<br>

butter and cream<br>

serve with glass of fine champagne</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Elisa</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >sorrel</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >sorrel and chervil<br>

cream and butter</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Excelsior</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >barley</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >pearl barley</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >green asparagus</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Fanchette</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >asparagus</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >stuffed lettuce leaves cut into roundels, peas</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Favouri</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >asparagus<br>

lettuce</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >asparagus tips, shredded sorrel<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Gasconne</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >tomato</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >onion</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >dice of confit of goose</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Georgette</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >artichoke bottoms</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >tapioca or sago pearls</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >tomato<br>

carrot<br>

tapioca flour</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Germinal</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken with<br>

tarragon</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >asparagus tips, chervil</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Gosford</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >green asparagus<br>

tapioca</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Homard d’Cardinal</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >lobster</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >lobster royale</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Homard a Cleveland</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >lobster Americaine</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >tomato cubes; lobster meat</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Omit the egg yolk liaison; like Lobster Bisque

but thickened with roux rather than rice</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Homard a l’indienne</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >lobster Americaine with curry</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >lobster meat;  cooked rice</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >This is where the unsold prepared lobster was

recycled</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Homard a L’orientale</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >lobster Newburg</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >lobster meat; cooked rice</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Crayfish, prawns, shrimp, or crab may be substituted

for lobster</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Homard au Paprika</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >with paprika</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >red pepper</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Homard au Persane</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >as Orientale but with pilaff rice, saffron and

cubes of red pepper</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Indienne</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Curry</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >rice<br>

coconut milk</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Idma</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >curried chicken quenelles<br>

asparagus tips<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Isoline</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >crayfish (prawn) butter</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >tapioca pearls</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Jacqueline</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >carrots, peas, asparagus tips, rice</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Japonaise</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Japanese artichokes</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >small crouton</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Jean Bart</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fish quenelles<br>

tomato Dice<br>

macaroni<br>

julienne of leek</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Jeanette</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >salsify</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >rice, dice of chcken</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Joinville</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >crayfish</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >truffles<br>

mushrooms<br>

butter<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Francois de Joinville, Duc d´Orleans <br>

Sailor and author (1818-1900).</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Juanita</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >rice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chicken quenelles<br>

hard boiled egg yolks <br>

tomato dice<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Laitue</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >lettuce</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fried croutons<br>

chervil/parsley<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >La Valliere</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >celery</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Royale and dice of celery<br>

(profiteroles stuffed with chicken)<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Louise de la Baume le Blanc Duchesse de Lavalliere.

Court “favourite” of Louis XIV.</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Lison</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >rice<br>

celery</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >tapioca or sago pearls</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Mais</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >sweet corn</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >grains of sweet corn<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Marcilly</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >peas</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Sago or tapioca<br>

chicken quenelles<br>

butter and Cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Marie Louise<br>

Marie Stuart</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >barley cream</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >macaroni; brunoise<br>

brunoise; pearl barley; carrot balls</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Empress of France, second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Martha</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >onion</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chicken quenelles stuffed with vegetable brunoise;

green peas; chervil/parsley<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Mathurine</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >salmon quenelles</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Milanaise</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >tomato</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >macaroni, julienne of whit mushrooms (truffles),

ham</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Mogador</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >foie gras</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chicken, tongue julienne, truffles</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Montespan</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >asparagus</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >tapioca, peas</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Montorgueil</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >vegetables, shredded sorrel, chervil/parsley</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Morilles</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >morels</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >morels</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Nelusko</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >grilled nuts</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chicken quenelles</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Nivernais</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >ordinary</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >carrot</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >brunoise of carrot</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Nymphes</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >royale and dice of frogs legs</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Orge</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >barley</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >pearl barley</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Orties</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >nettles</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fried croutons<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Oseille a l’Avoine</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >oats<br>

sorrel</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >shredded sorrel<br>

cream</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Oyster</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Oyster</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >4 poached oysters per serving</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Delicate.<br>

Doesn’t hold</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Petit-Duc</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >woodcock</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >dice of woodcock fillets,  game royale<br>

glass of brandy</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Pierre-le-Grand</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >mushrooms</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >julienne of carrot and celery. <br>

serve with a glass of vodka </td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Peter The Great, Emporer of Russia</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >celeriac</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >dice of celeriac</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Poireaux</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >leeks</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >fried crouton</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Regence</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >fish</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >barley<br>

crayfish</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chicken quenelles<br>

pearl barley</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Riz</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Rice</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >rice</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Saint-Hubert</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >game</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >dice of game, truffles, red currant jelly, brandy</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Sultane</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >chicken</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >sweet almond milk<br>

pistachio butter</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >crescents of chicken and crayfish forcemeat;

truffled</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >Pink crescents in a pale green soup</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Windsor</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >wtrong: originally calves foot </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >rice<br>

turtle herbs (thyme, bay)</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >chicken quenelles with hard boiled yolk of egg, 

julienne of stock meat</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >As “Brown Windsor” it was the typical, and much

abused thick brown soup  </td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td width="15%" valign=top >Xavier</td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >  </td>

<td width="15%" valign=top >rice<br>

sherry</td>

<td width="25%" valign=top >Royale<br>

chicken</td>

<td width="30%" valign=top >  </td>

</tr>

</table>

</TD>

</TABLE>

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