The short answer is that higher g forces will separate smaller particles, and particles with less density difference from the liquid. Lower g's for longer times won't do the same thing. I've read that lime juice clarified at 48,000 g tastes much better than at 27,000 g, the threshold for clarification. Time will make a difference, but it's more important for very fine particles at high g's. Runs for separating out retrovirus particles may take hundreds of thousands of g's for 24 hours
The long answer is a bit more complicated, and if your not interested in the details, feel free to skip the following - I'm used to people's eyes glazing over when I start to ramble on about nerdy details of technology.
As particles get smaller, the variation in force with the variation in the number and velocity of water molecules hitting it becomes larger, because the total number of hits per unit time decreases. When the particles get small enough, the variation is large enough to cause Brownian motion
. If you drop a large ball bearing, and a bb into a deep container of water, the bb will take a perceptibly longer time to reach the bottom. This is because the force of gravity pulling the objects through the water is proportional to their mass, which varies with the cube of their diameter; but the drag from moving through the water varies as their cross sectional area, which is proportional to the square of their diameter. So all other things being equal, a particle ten times smaller will have 1/1000 the mass but 1/100 the area, and fall - terminal velocity - 1/10 as fast(approximately, because all other things aren't exactly equal). The force fluctuations that cause Brownian motion will make the particles vary a little bit in speed; the smaller the particle, the larger the variation, and it will be unmeasurable on the ball bearing or bb. As the particle size approaches ~2 micron, the Brownian motion will approach the magnitude of the sinking motion at one g. For even smaller particles, or less dense particles, the effect of the Brownian motion will overcome gravity, keeping them in suspension as a colloid or emulsion. A surface layer of surfactant (soap) will keep fine particles from coalescing into larger particles that can sink (or float, in the case of low density particles like fat). Higher accelerations in a centrifuge will overcome the forces of Brownian motion for smaller particles, or particles with lower density differences from water. There's probably something in lime juice that's too small to scatter light and cause cloudiness, that won't separate out at 27,000 g's but will at 48,000 g, that alters the taste.