Since I'm from the land of Glögg...
First of all, glögg in form of warm wine that has been infused with spices has been around since the middle ages (the old romans and greeks have been doing it for longer than that) but the word "glödgat" (*to mull) is printed first time in 1609. The recipe is simple, just a pice of sugar that you pour Cognac over and then light it on fire and let melted sugar drip down into wine. "glödgat" and "glögg" comes from the word "glöd" (*ember).
We made Glögg as an medicine. Since we are up north and can't make our own wine we had to buy it from southern Europe I can imagine that we didn't get the best wines up here and during the winter months the wine had probably gone bad. So it's cold and the expensive wine that we had bought had gone bad so we started to put spices in the wine to make it drinkable.
The first recipe that I could find is from 1837.
Regular red wine
But it was around the 1850ths that Glögg in it's present form started to become popular, the book "Handbok i förädling, förstärkning och tillverkning av viner och spiritousa" (Manual of prosessing and manufacture of wines and spirits) from 1870 states 4 recipes.
During the 1850ths we also started bottling Swedish Punsch, before that you bought it quarts or barrels. But it wasn't until the end of the 1800s that Glögg on bottle became popular.
There are 3 main styles of classic Glögg. The most usual one is when you take spices and put them in red wine and heat it up. You can also put the spices in spirit of your choice and let them macerate and then use some of the glöggextract in heated wine. The final one is a fermented Glögg. The base is "Svagdricka" (almost like Kvass) and spices. This is typically made 8-6 weeks before Christmas. But the beverage becomes better if you store it for a year or two.
A typical recipe with spirit goes like this:
1 piece of cinamon
1 piece of ginger (don't forget!!)
1 small piece of bitter orange peel (so it's not the usual orange, we call it pommerans, the classic recipes contains the pith also)
1 tsp of cloves
½ tsp of cardamom
100 gr raisins
35 cl of vodka
(2-3 dl of sugar)
(2 bottles of red wine)
Put the spices and raisins in a jar with the vodka, let it sit for 4 days shake the jar every day. Strain, use the amount of tincture you want together with red wine and sugar, heat and drink. This tincture is for 2 bottles of red wine and for that about 2-3 dl of sugar.
For regular Glögg use the same spices but heat the wine with the spices for about 15 minutes, done. The amount of spices are up to you, everyone makes different types of glögg.
For fermented Glögg:
5 L Svagdricka (use kvass if you can't find it)
2 kg Sugar
1 dried peel of a bitter orange
0,5 dl cardamom
1 dl cloves
1 pc dried ginger
250 gr raisins
yeast (for this classic recipe we use bread yeast, but it's much better with a beer yeast)
Stir 2 times every day, ferment for at least 20 days.
The big difference between Glögg and Glüwine is that Glögg contains ginger and Glüwine is made with big pieces of orange.
In Sweden we drink Glögg with raisins and almonds, you put it in your cup with Glögg. Usualy you have gingerbread and saffron buns to eat.