There are multiple types of food safety concerns. 180 F (actually, anything above about 140 F [Note 1!]) kills bacteria and larger organisms such as trichinia parasites. From the viewpoint of preventing such diseases, specific cooking temperature is of concern mainly with very low temperature cooking like sous-vide, still safe if done right.
interesting! I wondered about the warm setting [circa 180 degrees F]. Any sense (MaxH?) of whether or not that would create additional food safety concerns?
Botulism, topic of this thread, is a separate issue, independent of all that. As I mentioned before in your Slow-Cooker Confit thread, Daniel, it actually has little to do with appliance temperature settings and more to do with what happens after cooking. That's because, not to repeat this point endlessly, killing dormant botulinum spores requires 250 F at the food itself, and you can't reliably raise water-bearing foods to 250 F without the steam autoclaving mandatory in commercial canning (in metal cans, or temperature-tolerant soft containers like retort pouches and aseptic "brick" packs). The fatal 1971 US botulism outbreak happened through inadequate pressure sterilizing of canned potato-leek soup meant to be served cold. (That incident sharply raised US awareness of botulism, which has since faded.)
Any food, regardless of cooking details, can later germinate botulism spores (which in turn create the dangerous toxin) when stored anaerobically (e.g. sealed airtight or immersed or coated with fat), unless the food (1) has high enough acid content, (2) contains strong enough chemical preservatives, or (3) was properly steam-sterilized to 250 F [Note 1]. Some C. bot. strains grow at refrigerator temps., but they don't grow instantly, and the time factor works in your favor. These details are elaborated earlier in this thread and in the official link below. Botulinum spores are remarkably tough: One famous fatal US outbreak came from mushrooms boiled for hours in wine -- which would easily kill almost any other foodborne pathogen -- then stored, cool, under oil for several days.
As also detailed upthread, modern confit recipes satisfy none of those three preventive conditions. That's why standard authoritative advice (and instruction to professional cooks) is simply to refrigerate fresh confits and serve them within a few days, or freeze (which interrupts any C. bot. growth). Heating the food thoroughly for a few minutes before serving also destroys any accumulated botulinum toxin. That safety precaution is automatic if you oven-crisp your duck, or use it for further cooking like a stew (e.g., cassoulets).
Note 1: For specifics, check official public-health guidlines such as WHO Fact Sheet 270. Do not rely on offhand advice. Some published confit recipes also neglect this simple precautionary information.