Hot and Spicy
Author: Mark Stevens (=Mark)
During the past 25 years there has been an unprecedented change in eating habits around the world. Improved transportation systems have allowed for the marketing of a much more diverse selection of foods than at any other time in history. One specific change in national tastes is the sweeping tide of hot and spicy food that is moving across the US and parts of Europe. Fiery cuisine is taking on a life of it’s own, with specialty stores and restaurants devoted to the burn. There is even an Internet mailing list of ChileHeads with close to a thousand subscribers worldwide who use it to discuss every aspect of this spicy food subculture, centered on the hot chile pepper they adoringly refer to as “El Grande!”
Interest in hot & spicy cuisine is due in part to the availability of them resulting from a world wide distribution system, as well as the incorporation of large numbers of immigrants from tropical climates, where a love of spicy foods seems to have always been a culinary tradition. Large communities of people migrating from the Caribbean, Central America and tropical areas of the Pacific Rim such as India, Thailand and Malaysia have contributed to the popularity of their fiery foods.
A Long Strange Trip
The chile pepper itself is a New World vegetable. Like corn, tomatoes and potatoes, they were unknown outside the Americas prior to Columbus’ discovery of the new world. The early voyages to the Americas started as a means of locating a western route for the spice trade and it is felt that this is why chiles were mistakenly named for the pungent fruit of the tropical vine that produces black pepper. Interestingly, even though chiles had their origin in the Americas, after being introduced to the old world around 1500, there would pass centuries before they would become truly popular in the Americas outside of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean basin. Even in Europe, hot chiles would only become somewhat popular in Hungary and around the Mediterranean basin. Such would not be the case in Southeast Asia. From India to Korea the pungent powers of chile peppers was embraced within 10 years of being introduced to the old world. Can you imagine Malaysian, Thai or Chinese cuisine prior to the introduction of chiles around 1500 AD? Ironically, it would be the immigrants from these countries 400 years later that would rekindle interest in hot, spicy cuisine in the US and Europe.
Many varieties of peppers, also known as members of the capsicum species, are not hot, or pungent. Most bell peppers grown in the US have little or no pungency. These varieties are used fresh, or often used to color other foods. The wilder varieties, on the other hand, range from mildly to extremely pungent. This is entirely due to the substance capsaicin, or, actually, a group of similar substances called capsaicinoids. These chemicals are found mostly in the ribs of the peppers, and especially the placenta, which are the light colored membranes that attach the seeds to the inside of the pepper pod. Pure capsaicin is a whitish powder, soluble in alcohol but insoluble in cold water, which is why drinking water to help alleviate the burning won't work. Drinking whole milk or other dairy products will help alleviate the burn, as will bread or other starchy fare. Several people on the ChileHeads mailing list swear by bananas as the ultimate rescue!
A popular misperception is that those who indulge in lots of hot, spicy chile peppers can somehow ruin their sense of taste; to somehow “burn out” their tastebuds. Nothing could be further from the truth. Chileheads are able to detect many more flavors than their mild mannered brethren, whose senses have been overwhelmed by heat. Capsaicin itself does not interact in any way with the tastebuds, instead these chemicals stimulate the pain receptors that cause the sensation of pain, and in particular, heat. Capsaicin, like any other substance that affects the nervous system can be made to develop a tolerance, requiring larger and larger quantities to elicit the same effect.
The fact that capsaicin does not interact with taste buds can be demonstrated simply by recalling instances where after chopping peppers you have neglected to wash your hands and inadvertently touch the eyes or other “sensitive” parts of the body. I’ll guarantee those heat receptors will be signaling “Hot! Hot! Hot!!!” to your brain. I’ll further advise you to consider whether those particular body parts happen to be sporting taste buds…
As for whether chile aficionados can taste more or less than those more moderate folks, consider the cuisines that feature lots of hot and spicy dishes such as Thai, Indian and some parts of China. Many of these foods besides having staggeringly large quantities of hot chile peppers, also have many layers of flavors from various spices, herbs and condiments. To those who are not used to even moderate heat, these secondary nuances of flavor are overwhelmed by the sheer fiery blast. To those who have cultivated a taste for hot, spicy foods, all of these flavors can be detected and appreciated. After developing a resistance to capsaicin, it takes much more of it to cause further stimulation of the heat receptors. People who enjoy hot peppers have not learned to endure the pain, the truth is they don’t feel it as much. They can even appreciate the different flavors of different peppers such as the citrus-like flavor of habaneros or the smoky rich flavors of a smoke dried jalapeno, or Chipotle chile.
What’s with these Fools?
Why do people insist on subjecting themselves to this pain? There have been many theories, one being that since the indigenous cuisines that make most use of chile peppers are located in tropical parts of the world, that chile induced sweating aids in keeping the body cool. Others would claim that the reason that chiles are found in the tropics can be explained by the fact that these are the areas that provide the best growing conditions for chiles. Some researchers have theorized that the pain induced by capsaicin can stimulate the brain to release endorphins, the bodies natural pain killer. It is thought that the feelings of euphoria, similar to that of runners who experience what is referred to as “runners High” are responsible for the Chileheads yearn for the burn.
Chiles are used in a wide variety of ways. They can be chopped and used raw in salsas and salads, or used along with citrus juices to marinade seafood in a dish called ceviche. They can also be cooked into a large number of Southwestern, Asian, Caribbean, African and Indonesian dishes. Chiles are also often dried and/or smoked. A smoked Jalapeno is called a Chipotle, and adds a pungent smokey heat to many soups and stews.
The capsaicinoids are unique compared to other "spicy" substances such as mustard oil (zingerone and allyl isothiocyanate), black pepper (piperine) and ginger (gingerol) in that capsaicin causes a long-lasting selective desensitization to the irritant pain by repeated doses of a low concentration or a single high concentration dose. This effect has been taken to its logical conclusion in that many pain killing salves and creams now use capsaicin as their active ingredient. This is also manifests in 'Chile-heads' as an increasing ability to eat hotter chile peppers and foods. Another effect of capsaicin is that although it fools the nervous system into believing that it is being burned, that no actual physical damage occurs
Back in the early 1900s, a chemist named Wilbur Scoville, developed a method to measure the heat level of chile peppers. it's called the Scoville Organoleptic Test, and is a dilution-taste procedure. In the original test, Scoville blended pure ground chiles with a sugar-water solution and a panel of testers then sipped the concoctions, in increasingly diluted concentrations, until they reached the point at which the liquid no longer burned the mouth. A number was then assigned to each chile based on how much it needed to be diluted before you could taste no heat. The Scoville heat scale is measured in multiples of 100 units, with the lowly bell pepper rated zero, to the scorching, fruity tasting Habanero which rates at 300,000 Scoville units. One variety of Habanero, the Red Savina, has been tested at over 500,000 units, and has been listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the worlds hottest chile! These days the Scoville method of tasting diluted chiles has been replaced by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). This has allowed a more precise measurement of the actual amount of capsaicinoids in a sample of chiles. The resulting measurement is usually related back to the Scoville scale for comparison.
0-100 Scoville Units - most Bell/Sweet pepper varieties.
500-1000 Scoville Units - New Mexican peppers.
1,000-1,500 Scoville Units - Espanola peppers.
1,000-2,000 Scoville Units - Ancho & Pasilla peppers.
1,000-2,500 Scoville Units - Cascabel & Cherry peppers.
2,500-5,000 Scoville Units - Jalapeno & Mirasol peppers.
5,000-15,000 Scoville Units - Serrano peppers.
15,000-30,000 Scoville Units - de Arbol peppers.
30,000-50,000 Scoville Units - Cayenne & Tabasco peppers.
50,000-100,000 Scoville Units - Chiltepin peppers
100,000-350,000 Scoville Units - Scotch Bonnet & Thai peppers.
200,000 to 300,000 Scoville Units - Habanero peppers.
Around 16,000,000 Scoville Units is Pure Capsaicin.
Marketing the Burn
One of the first commercial condiments to be used to add a little fire to ones life was Tabasco cayenne pepper sauce. Originated in southern Louisiana just after the civil war, it was used on raw oysters, scrambled eggs and gumbo. Until the early 90s this and a few other cayenne type sauces were the only game in town. The hot sauce industry is now approaching $200 million a year in business. Now there are over 1000 different varieties of hotsauce sold, some milder than Tabasco, many scorchingly hotter! The Tabasco Company itself now markets several varieties of sauces, one flaming version made with Habanero peppers, considered by many fiery foods enthusiasts to be the hottest chile on earth.
Another product that has made deep inroads into popular culinary circles in the US is salsa, which surpassed the previous favorite condiment, catsup, in the early 90s. Generally a tomato based product with chiles, onions and cilantro, there are hundreds of varieties offered with diverse ingredients such as mangos, papaya, Vidalia onions, jicama, corn, tomatillos and olives. Once reserved as a dip for tortilla chips, salsas are now served as an accompaniment to a variety of meats and fish
Yeah, They’re Nuts…
ChileHeads don’t merely like the bite of these pungent pods; they yearn for it. The chile pepper adds a certain sensory element to a dish, however elaborate or delicate it might be. The ChileHead is addicted. They start collecting different concoctions including hot sauces, salsas, fresh or dried chiles and ground chile powders. In what some might consider obsessive, the pepper eater may begin to turn his or her nose up at foods that cannot be enhanced by the addition of some sort of spicy condiment. That a third of the world’s population has become so enamored of a fruit that bites back with such a vengance is remarkable. They will seek out others of their faith and trade chiles, sauces and stories. When they have stopped sweating and fanning their mouths they will reach for another taste of El Grande…
Piquant Salmon Rolls
- 8 oz. cream cheese
- 1/4 cup walnuts or pecans, chopped
- 1/4 cup green onion, chopped
- 1/2 tsp ground coriander
- 1/2 tsp cayenne (or more, to taste. For Chilehead events I’ve used dried habanero powder)
- 1 stalk celery chopped
- 2 tsp lemon juice
- 8 oz. (3/4" by 2") thin slices smoked salmon
- thinly sliced cucumber
- freshly ground pepper
- your favorite crackers (I use wheatsworth)
- fresh dill sprigs
- hot sauce
2. Add lemon juice and spices and mix well.
3. Spread mixture on salmon slices and season with pepper, roll up to form neat rolls
4. Place a cucumber slice on each cracker and place a sprig of dill and a salmon roll on each cucumber.
5. Drizzle with remaining lemon juice and garnish with chives if desired.
6. To add some more heat you can add a couple drops of habanero sauce to the top of the cucumber during assembly. The sauce I use has cloves and honey which seem to compliment the flavor of the salmon. You might want to play around with the seasonings.
Salmon rolls may be prepared several hours in advance, and assembled just before serving to prevent the cracker from getting soggy.
Bun Bo Hue (Vietnamese Hot and Spicy Soup)
By Lyn Belisle of the FoodWine mailing list
- 4-6 pork feet
- 1-1 1/2 pounds roast beef
- 1/2 tsp. meat tenderizer
- 1-3 stems lemongrass, cut into 3" pieces
- 1 tablespoon chili powder
- 1 tablespoon vegetable oil
- 1 teaspoon chopped dry onion
- 1 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 1 teaspoon shrimp paste
- 1 teaspoon sugar
- 1 teaspoon MSG
- 1 package rice vermicelli noodles, cooked and drained
2. Cut the beef into bite size cubes, boil for 10 minutes, then drain.
3. In a deep saucepan half filled with water, add pork feet and meat tenderizer. Cook over medium heat for 15 minutes. Add the beef cubes and continue to cook over medium heat.
4. In the meantime put oil in a small skillet, heat until very hot, remove from burner and immediately throw in the dried onion and the chili powder. Stir well and pour into soup.
5. Add the shrimp paste and seasonings to taste. Let soup simmer for 30-45 minutes until pig's feet are well cooked.
6. Soup is ready to serve. Fill bowls half full of rice noodles and ladle the soup over them.
Serve with chopped green onion, cilantro, sliced peppers, and lime.
Chinese Hot & Sour Soup
- 6 cups chicken stock
- 1/4 lb julienned lean pork or chicken
- 2 tbsp garlic & red chile paste
- 2 tbsp soy sauce
- 3/4 tsp ground white pepper
- 4 eggs, beaten
- 5 tbsp cornstarch
- 1 cup sliced shittake mushrooms
- 1 can peeled straw mushrooms
- 1 can sliced bamboo shoots
- 1 can sliced water chestnuts
- 1 can baby corn ears
- 1 cake soft tofu, sliced into 1/4 inch cubes
- 1/4 cup white vinegar
- 1 tsp sesame oil
- 1/4 cup dried black fungus (cloud ears), soaked in water for one hour, drained and sliced.
- finely chopped scallions for garnish
2. Add pepper, vinegar, bamboo, baby corn, water chestnuts, fungus and tofu, simmer 10 min
3. Mix cornstarch with 5 tbsp water and add. bring back to a simmer and pour the eggs in a very thin stream over the surface. Let stand for 10 seconds before gently stirring in the sesame oil.
Serve with a garnish of chopped scallions. The pepper, vinegar and chile paste can be varied to taste. You're a chile-head, you know what to do!
Chipotle Chicken & Veggie Soup
Got the idea for this after sampling a couple bowls of a regional style soup during a trip to the Firey Foods Festival in New Mexico, just substituted Chipotles for the green chiles.
- 1 6 lb. roasting chicken
- 1 32 oz can chicken stock
- 1 cup coarsley chopped celery (Save all veggie trimmings for stock)
- 1 cup diced red bell pepper
- 1 cup sliced carrots
- 2 medium onions coarsely chopped
- 1 cup corn kernels
- 1 16 oz can diced tomato
- 1 14 oz. can chipotles in adobo sauce
- 1/2 tsp thyme
- cracked black pepper to taste
- salt to taste (I use heavy chinese soy sauce)
2. Debone chicken and save all the bones & scraps. Cut meat into bite size bits removing fat & gristle. Refrigerate.
3. In a large stock pot add bones and carcass as well as veggie peelings, carrot butts and onion skins etc and cover with cold water. Bring to a boil, then simmer for 2 to 3 hours, skimming and stirring occasionally. You could use all canned stock and one of those rotisserie chickens from the store, but my life is dull and I got nothin' better to do...
4. Strain through a colander and add stock back to pot. Add celery, bell pepper, corn, onions and carrots as well as the canned stock and bring to a simmer. Cook until veggies begin to turn tender. Add chicken and canned tomato.
5. While soup is coming back to a simmer, take about a cup of it and put in a food processor with the chipotles & adobo. Whirr it up for about 30 seconds or untill the peppers are well pureed. Add salt, pepper and thyme to the soup, then start adding the chipotle puree about a quarter cup at a time, stirring and tasting for the desired pungency. Using all of it makes for a chileheads delite, but may be too much for some gringos to handle!
This makes a big old pot full, which would probably serve 10 or 15 people. Good for freezing and serving at a later time.
Please post your questions here -->> Q&A